India-Pakistan 1972 Simla Agreement along with Rare Photos. Indira Gandhi and Julfikar Ali Bhutto respective top leader from India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement at 12:40am on July 2, 1972. It followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh. The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations. It also conceived steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations. Most importantly, it bound the two countries ‘to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations’. The agreement also converted the 1949 UN ‘Cease-fire Line’ into the Line of Control (LOC) between Pakistan and India.
The Simla Agreement contains a set of guiding principles, mutually agreed to by India and Pakistan, which both sides would adhere to while managing relations with each other. These emphasize: respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; respect for each others unity, political independence; sovereign equality; and abjuring hostile propaganda. The following principles of the Agreement are, however, particularly noteworthy:
- A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches.
- To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts.
- To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
India has faithfully observed the Simla Agreement in the conduct of its relations with Pakistan.